Screening procedures for Guam rail to return to Guam from U.S. mainland zoos.

 

This protocol is recommended ONLY for rails being shipped TO GUAM!

 

Objectives:

Procedures:

         Preshipment testing is requested prior to shipment as per the policy for birds not going to Guam.  Additional quarantine testing pertinent for shipment to Guam will be completed at the quarantine facility.    

1.    Uncrate in mosquito proof environment for triage exam, weight , and identification

2.    Initiate quarantine protocol and isolation period

1.    Collect feces for fecal ova/parasite screen (routine direct and flotation exam)

2.    Collect feces for aerobic bacterial culture including enteric pathogen screen to R/O campylobacter and salmonella. 

1.    Weigh bird

2.    Manual restraint for blood sampling: a total volume of 1.5 ml is withdrawn. Place sample into lithium heparin (improve volume for harvest versus serum) or a red top microtainer tube (some arboviral labs require serum). The following procedures are performed on each blood sample:

         Psittacosis IgG titer (CF or IFA) +/- IgM titers (EBA- like test available at UGA).   Bank the rest of the serum sample at -70 C.

         Serum or plasma titer for eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEE), western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEE), St. Louis Encephalomyelitis (SLE) and West Nile Encephalitis (WNV).  Bank residual in an ultra cold freezer.

3.    Choanal/ cloacal swab for Chlamydophila PCR.  This should be done in complement with the serology testing mentioned above.    

4.    Consider administration of supportive fluids SQ after drawing blood.

1.    Each bird is anesthetized with isoflurane/oxygen via mask

2.    Whole body VD and lateral radiographs are taken

3.    Each bird is then weighed

4.    Restrain for blood sampling. A total volume of 1.5 ml is withdrawn from the jugular vein. The following procedures are performed on each blood sample:   CBC,  Plasma/ Serum chemistry, Plasma electrophoresis (EPH), Asper titer/antigen screen (U. Miami) 

5.    Consider administration of supportive fluids SQ after drawing blood.

1.    Weigh each bird and record weight in the medical record

2.    Collect feces for routine ova/parasite screen.

1.    Weigh each bird and record weight in medical record.

2.    Restrain each bird for blood sampling. Collect 1.5 ml of blood and place the entire sample into green or red top tubes. The following procedures are performed on each blood sample:

3.    Serum titer for eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEE), western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEE), St. Louis Encephalomyelitis (SLE) and West Nile Encephalitis (WNV).  Any positive cases will be considered as suspects. Previous results will be compared as paired titers to establish a two-point serial titer evaluation on any animal with a positive titer at the four week bleed. Based on the results of this evaluation, the SSP coordinator will be briefed on the advisability of accepting a bird with evidence of exposure to any of these viruses.

4.    Bank all residual serum samples at -70 C.

5.    Consider administration of supportive fluids SQ after drawing blood.

1.    Weigh each bird and record weight in medical record

1.    Veterinarian will review results of tests (all should have been received including initial acid fast culture but not  to include second acid fast culture)

2.    Bird (s) should be assessed for clearance for shipment to Guam

3.    Bird (s) will be held in isolation until shipped

4.    At crating, each bird will be caught in a thin mesh wire to prevent exposure to mosquitoes.

5.    Each bird will be weighed before crating, and each crate will be mosquito proofed.

6.    Shipment to Guam is to be arranged so as to minimize layover time to Guam.  Expected layover in Hawaii, but direct flight to Hawaii is recommended. 

7.    Any birds that die while in preshipment isolation, during transit, or after arrival should be submitted for a complete necropsy according to the existing necropsy protocol

8.    Any birds that become ill while in preshipment isolation, during transit, or after arrival will be cared for by the veterinarian on duty at the holding facility (SDZ or DAK), or at the Guam holding facility.

 


Day 1 :
Unpack birds
Exam
Check/apply ID
Triage

Day 2:
Fecal o/p
Fecal aerobic Cx + enteric path

Day 3:

Day 4:

Day 5:
 

Day 6:
 

Day 7:
 

Day 8:
Weigh
Bleed: Serum and/or plasma

Chlamydophila IgG, Arbovirus serology (WNV,EEE,SLE,WEE ), SQ fluids

Day 9:

Day 10:

Day 11:

Day 12:

Day 13:

Day 14:

Day 15:
Anesthesia
VD/lat whole body rads
Weigh
Bleed: CBC, panel, EPH, Asper
SQ fluids

Day 16:

Day 17:

Day 18:

Day 19:

Day 20:

Day 21:

Day 22:
Weigh, Fecal O/P

Day 23:

Day 24:

Day 25:

Day 26:

 

Day 27:

Day 28:

Day 29:
Weigh
Bleed: serum arbovirus serology serum (WNV, EEE, SLE, WEE )

Day 30:

Day 31:

Day 32:

Day 33:

Day 34:

Day 35:

Day 36:
Weigh

Day 37:

Day 38:

Day 39:

Day 40:

Day 41:

Day 42:
Weigh, pack, ship to Guam


References used in the preparation of this protocol:

 

1.     Altman, et al. Avian Medicine and Surgery, WB Saunders Co., 1997.

2.     Ashton, W.L.G., and J.E. Cooper. 1989. Exclusion, Elimination and Control of Avian Pathogens. ICBP Technical Publication #10. Pp. 31-38.

3.     AAZV Infectious Disease Manual, Quarantine.

4.     Cooper, J.E. 1983. Guideline Procedures for Investigating Mortality in Endangered Birds. ICBP, Cambridge.

5.     Guidelines for Zoo and Aquarium Veterinary Medical Programs and Veterinary Hospitals. Supplement to Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 21(3), 1990.

6.     Savidge, JA, L. Sileo, and L.M. Siegfried. Was disease involved in the decimation of Guam's avifauna? JWD 28(2):206-214, 1992.

7.     van Riper, C III, S.G. van Riper, M.L. Goff, and M. Laird. The epizootiology and ecological significance of malaria in Hawaiian land birds. Ecological Monographs 56:327-344, 1986.

 

Consultations obtained for use in development of these recommendations:

Dr. Carter Atkinson (NBS, USGS, Volcanoes, Hawaii)
Dr. Lou Sileo (NWHRC, USGS)
Dr. Julie Savidge (Univ. Nebraska)
Dr. Randall Junge (Micronesian Kingfisher SSP veterinary advisor)
Dr. Don Janssen (Director of Veterinary Services, San Diego Zoo)
Dr. Bruce Rideout (Director of Pathology, San Diego Zoo)
Dr. Mitch Bush (CRC)
Dr. Glenn Olsen (Patuxent)
Dr. Julie Langenberg (ICF, Gruiformes TAG veterinary advisor)

Dr. Theirry Work (USGS-BRD, National Wildlife Health Center- Honolulu, HI)

 

Laboratory Information for test submissions

 

Cornell University (arboviral serology)- Dr. Amy Glaser 607-253-3900

 

Tampa Arbovirus Lab (arboviral serology)- 813-974-8000

(lab prefers serum, but will accept plasma- i.e. fibrin related false positives)

 

University of Miami ( Aspergillosis panels including EPH, Chlamydophila panel IFA/PCR)

Pathology Reference Services

1550 NW 10th Street

Papanicoloau Bldg, Rm 105

Miami, FL 33136

800-232-1056 (customer service)

 

University of Georgia (Chlamydophila panel- IFA/ EBA- like serology/ PCR)

Infectious Disease Lab

110 Riverbend Rd.

Riverbend North, Rm. 150

UGA

Athens, GA 30602

706.542.8092 FAX 706.583.0843

www.idl-uga.com or www.vet.uga.edu/idl

 

Protocol developed/ maintained by:

Deidre K. Fontenot, D.V.M.
Veterinarian, Animal Programs
Disney's Animal Kingdom
1200 N. Savannah Cir. E
Bay Lake, FL 32830
Office (407) 939-6238, FAX 407-939-6391
deidre.k.fontenot@disney.com